Factors that influence production of maize in South Africa

How does fire influence the production of maize in south Africa? Fire is often used to clear the land for maize production even though this method of clearing land causes the soil to be nutrient poor Maize is Ethiopia's largest cereal crop in terms of total production, acreage, and the number of farm holdings. Bester, Marius (2014-04) Thesis (MComm)--Stellenbosch University Rain and floods influence the farming project of the production of maize in south Africa because too much or the lack off can cause damage to whatever is being farmed A literature study on the background of agriculture and maize production in South Africa as well as subsistence farming and the factors influencing the production and development of subsistence farmers was conducted. After the literature study factors was identified that influence the production and development of these farmers Factors influencing maize crop production at household levels: A case of Rukwa Region in the Production of staple food occupies an important part in Sub-Saharan Africa's agricultural production. Maize crop in particular is the most important staple food in this area. The article mainly examines south of the equator and between.

Essays on Factors That Influence Production Of Maize In South Africa There are tons of free term papers and essays on Factors That Influence Production Of Maize In South Africa on CyberEssays.com. We also have a wide variety of research papers and book reports available to you for free of maize in South Africa, while the remaining 2% is produced by the developing agriculture. Over the past ten years, total production of maize has significantly fluctuated, with the lowest production experienced during the 2015/16 and the highest record crop attained in the 2016/17 production seasons maize and mixed cropping combination with maize have positive influence on maize production. Mpuga (2004) conducted a research study in Uganda to investigate the factors which affect demand for agricultural credit. The findings of the study reveal that the deman South Africa has a dual agricultural economy, with both well-developed commercial farming and more subsistence-based production in the deep rural areas. Majority of the disadvantaged farmers are not part of the mainstream agriculture and practice subsistence agriculture in overcrowded, semi-arid areas in the former homelands

What Factors influence maize production in south Africa

Maize is the most important summer crop in the smallholder farming areas of the Eastern Cape (EC). However, its productivity is very low with average yields of less than 1 t ha -1. Low and variable rainfall is a major limiting factor to maize production. The soils in the EC are also inherently infertile, shallow and are prone to crusting However factors such as decreasing number of farmers, land reform and others can affect growth of productivity of the sector indirectly. 3.2.1 Agricultural output According to Wiebe et al (1998) agricultural output grew at an average of 2.9% per year in South Africa in the 1980`s whilst between 1960 and 1996 the growth slowed to 1.4% 8122562 SiLVA, JABRO FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCTION OF FORAGE MAIZE Iowa Slate University Ph.D. 1981 University IVIicrofiims I n t6rn âti 0 n âl 300 X. zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 4810 White maize production in developing countries is expected to grow at a rate of 3.3 percent per annum between 1987-89 and 2000, but these rates of growth depend upon continued expansion of production in sub-Saharan Africa Maize cultivars are available in South Africa that take from 105 to 145 days to physiological maturity and 155 to 180 days from planting to harvest. You should note when these benchmarks occur for the maize cultivars planted on your farm. Conservation tillage practices will extend these estimates by several days

factors that influence production of maize in south afric

In the Republic of South Africa, where a large portion of the maize is produced on large-scale commercial farms, average yields range from less than 2 tons to almost 3 tons per hectare, depending on weather conditions. TABLE 3 - White maize: estimated area and yields by selected developing regions, and selected sub-regions, 1992-94 averag South Africa's role in the exportation of maize in relation to other countries of Africa is paramount and with its importance not over emphasized (Beinart, 2018). According to DAFF (2018), the total production level of maize was generally erratic between 2005 and 2009, with more stable levels between 2002 and 2004. In 2007, South Africa move Increased use of improved maize varieties and mineral fertilizers, coupled with increased extension services and the absence of devastating droughts are the key factors promoting the accelerated growth in maize productivity in Ethiopia. Ethiopia took a homegrown solutions approach to the research and development of its maize and other commodities FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN TIGRAY REGION, NORTHERN ETHIOPIA by BIHON KASSA ABRHA Submitted in accordance with the requirement for the degree of DOCTOR OF LITERATURE AND PHILOSOPHY in the subject DEVELOPMENT STUDIES at the UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA SUPERVISOR: PROF. ESTHER KIBUKA-SEBITOSI July 2015 Student Number: 4551-821-

impact on South Africa's maize supplies). While annual national maize production in South Africa fluctuates widely according to rainfall, average production has remained con­ stant over time. This is a concern, as consumption has increased with the growing population and maize production may soon not mee Maize is the most important grain crop in Southern Africa and prices are dramatically influenced by any indication of under or over production. The crop is just as important in other parts of the world, and a considerable amount of it is produced if climatic conditions are favourable Maize: Insect resistant maize was first grown in South Africa in 1998. Now herbicide tolerant and double-stacked herbicide tolerant/insect resistant maize are grown in South Africa. Statistics of 2012/2013 showed that 86% of maize cultivated in South Africa is GM maize. The double stacked herbicid

South Africa were used to describe the farming communities and identify factors that may affect adoption of improved crop production practices. Surveys involved 367 farmers in seven villages between 2000 and 2003. Surprisingly the incidence of mechanised cultivation was very high. Adoptio Fungi, bacteria and viruses can affect all the different parts of the plant including the roots, stems, leaves and the cobs. The latter can have the largest affect on yield when it comes to harvesting the crop, the maize grade will also be affected negatively. Diseases in maize require certain environmental conditions to develop Figure 3: Commercial maize production: 2006 - 2016 The production of maize since 1924 is depicted in the following graph. Figure 4: Maize production: 1924 - 2016 In Figure 4, one can see that South Africa has moved from a maize crop size of 724 000 tons in 1924 to an average maize crop size of about 11,0 million tons recently. One of th crop yields, specifically maize yield, in South Africa. This paper addresses this shortcoming by directly estimating a yield function for maize with the. two relevant climate variables, that is. Maize is the most important food crop, followed by wheat and barley. South Africa reported a total of 10.51 million metric ton of maize production in 2018/2019, with a free state province accounting for 38.7% of the total maize production in South Africa. In January 2017, the area of cultivation for maize increased by 33%, owing to good rainfall

How do factors influence production of maize in South

  1. M. E. Moeletsi, Agroclimatological risk assessment of rain-fed maize production for the Free State Province of South Africa [Ph.D. thesis], Department of Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa, 2010
  2. With the price of maize products decreasing following a good maize harvest, many people reverted to maize meal, resulting in bread consumption in South Africa declining slightly since May 2018
  3. Increased adoption will improve aspects like: transparency, risk management, stock management, an. price discovery. Smart technology can play a key role in the social and economic development of the agriculture sector in Africa. But, ironically, increased adoption could also hurt small-scale agriculture
  4. This diagram shows which critical production mangement practices should be implemented during certain growth stages of maize. Diagram: PANNAR. V3 stage. During the V3 stage, the growth point is still below ground level and at this early stage is heavily influenced by soil temperature
  5. g economy, with the well-developed profitable far
  6. 1. Introduction. The main factors that affect the price of carcasses are the external influences on supply and demand. Supply is a function of production system, efficiency of production, feed costs and external random variables such as disease and weather conditions which in the South African context is mainly periodic and prolonged drought

Factors that influence the development of South African

  1. 2. Environmental factors. Droughts have long been a threat to South Africa's agriculture and food production. Last year's droughts were the cause of decreased grain, wheat, and fruit production in several parts of the country and the prolonged dry seasons caused farmers to wait longer to plant their crops, or miss the planting season entirely
  2. imize the price.
  3. In the last 10 years, the use of maize for fuel production significantly increased, accounting for approximately 40% of the maize production in the United States. As the ethanol industry absorbs a larger share of the maize crop, higher prices for maize will intensify demand competition and could affect maize prices for animal and human consumption

Although one of the local varieties of maize grown (landrace maize) has a high tolerance to acidic soils, liming is still required. The soil in the agro-ecosystem for which yields were simulated is an Avalon soil form which has a sandy loam soil texture with a thickness of 900 mm (Smith et al., 2004).Bergville is in South Africa's summer (October-March) rainfall area and with rainfed. However, maize production in the region is being continuously and severely affected by threats, such as weeds, insects, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, fungi, low-quality seed, low levels of mechanization, suboptimal post-harvest management, drought, and climate change. Even among all these factors, South Africa remians the top maize producing. This study analyzed the variability of the agro-climatic parameters that impact maize production across different seasons in South Africa. To achieve this, four agro-climatic variables (precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, minimum, and maximum temperatures) were considered for the period spanning 1986-2015, covering the North West, Free State, Mpumalanga, and KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) provinces Policy uncertainty is a major limiting factor for maize production across sub-Saharan Africa. Given the importance of maize in national consumption and production governments often justify intervening in the marketing of maize to ensure food security. This can be in the form of export or import bans, or national food security stocks of maize

Free Essays on Factors That Influence Production Of Maize

Table 1.1 Production of Major Food Crops in Uganda (tonnes) Crop 2005 2006 2007 Bananas 9,380 9,052 9,233 Maize 1,237 1,258 1,262 Irish Potatoes 2,604 2,627 2,654 Cassava 5,576 4,924 4,973 Source: (UBOS 2008) Maize is an important cereal crop that is virtually grown in all parts of Uganda Maize is the most important food staple for resource-poor smallholders in Africa, providing food and income to millions. One of the key constraints to improving food and nutritional security in Africa is the poor post-harvest management that leads to between 14 % and 36 % loss of maize grains, thereby aggravating hunger. Post-harvest losses contribute to high food prices by removing part of.

(PDF) Climate variability and maize yield in South Africa

  1. The South African National Biodiversity Institute (Sanbi) recently released a report on the environmental impacts of GM maize in South Africa. As well as highlighting the importance of refuge.
  2. South Africa could expect its largest maize crop in the country's history, said the Crop Estimates Committee of the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Daff). The yield of maize is expected to be just more than 15-million tons, 101% higher than the 2016 crop, despite the drought
  3. Africa is considered to be the continent most severely affected by land degradation. Global climate change can also affect food production: by changing overall growing conditions (rainfall distribution, temperature regime); by inducing more extreme weather such as floods, storms, and drought; and by increasing extent, type and frequency of infestations, including that of invasive alien species

But the likes of South Korea, Vietnam, Japan and Taiwan, to name a few, have been relentless in buying the domestic maize (primarily yellow maize). In the week of 11 September 2020, South Africa's 2020/21 total maize exports were at 1.4 million tonnes, which equates to 52% of the seasonal export forecast (2.7 million tonnes) On top of the production loss, the maize price in South Africa, which drives maize prices and hence purchasing power in Lesotho, increased by 41% compared to 2006 and 100% compared to 2005 (Fig. Maize grows best on deep, well-drained, fertile soils, and where total seasonal rainfall exceeds 500 mm. Maize is reasonably tolerant to soil acidity, but if the soil is very acid, liming will improve the soil and enhance maize yields. Maize is susceptible to both drought and water-logging The most valued crops in South Africa are maize, which is exported, and wheat, which is not enough to provide the country's needs. Fresh fruit and wine bring in the most foreign earnings. All of these are under threat from increased temperatures and changing rainfall patterns. Increased levels of CO₂ may favour a general level of crop.

In South Africa, Hendriks argues that South Africa is nationally food secure; however, between 58% and 73% of households experience food insecurity. From the preceding, it is clear that climate change presents a high risk on food security in sub-Saharan countries, from crop production to food distribution and consumption The region's maize imports are forecast at 3.8 million tonnes, up from 2.8 million the year before. The biggest single importer of maize is Kenya, which is set to bring in an unchanged 1 million tonnes. South Africa is forecast to export 2.3 million tonnes of maize in 2018-19, up from 2.2 million the year before

Chris Venter, chief executive of Afgri, South Africa's largest agribusiness company, said the local maize crop would reach 20-million tonnes in five to 10 years' time, primarily owing to more. sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The central role of maize as a staple food in SSA is comparable to that of rice or wheat in Asia, with consumption rates being the highest in eastern and southern Africa (ESA). Of the 22 countries in the world where maize forms the highest percentage of calorie intake in the national diet, 16 are in Africa. Maize. Introduction Maize (Zea mays) is a member of the grass family (gramineae). It originated from South and Central America. It was introduced to West Africa by the Portuguese in the 10th century. Maize is one of the important grains in Nigeria, not only on the basis of the number of farmers that engaged in its cultivation, but also in its economic value. Maize is a major important cereal crop. 64 Agrekon, Vol 48, No 1 (March 2009) Emongor & Kirsten Like Botswana, Namibia has limited horticultural production, resulting in the supermarket chains importing fresh produce from South Africa. Wheat-flour products, maize-flour products and most pasta products are sourced from local manufacturers crops in Africa and South Asia using a systematic review and meta-analysis of data in 52 original publications from an initial screen of 1144 studies. Here we show that the projected mean change in yield of all crops is 8% by the 2050s in both regions. Across Africa, mean yield changes of 17% (wheat), 5% (maize), 15% (sorghum) and 10% (millet) an

Soil: Key to solving the food crisis? | The Why Files

economic indicator in South Africa because of its contribution and influence to the general Consumer Price Inflation (CPI) and its potential impact to food security, given the high levels of inequality and poverty in South Africa. South Africa uses inflation targeting, which aims to maintain CPI between 3 and 6 percent The country is ranked first in wheat production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), followed by South Africa, Sudan and Kenya . Wheat provides about 15% of the national caloric intake [ 26 ]. Wheat production increased by 30.9% between 2011/12 and 2015/16 and reached 4.2 million tons in 2015/16, which was mainly due to an increased production area and.

Drought affects maize - KL

Below are some of the key factors looking at the state of agriculture in South Africa's economy Agriculture performance Underpinned by the enormous contribution from field crops, horticultural. South Africa (Faber et al., 2011). Rural households' engagement in agricultural activities is largely effective in the reduction of hunger and food insecurity and this is an indication of a positive relationship between community food production and food security (Shisanya et al., 2011). Communit

Crop heat units (CHU) express the influence of temperature on a crop's growth and development. The growth of a plant depends on the total amount of heat to which it is subjected during its lifetime, accumulated as degree days. Low temperatures slow down and warmer temperatures hasten maturity. In South Africa, we use 10°C, valid for maize. Severe drought, driven by the current El Niño cycle , continues throughout Africa south of the Sahara, and South Africa is one of the countries being hardest hit.According to a new policy brief from the Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy (BFAP), South Africa's total rainfall in 2015 was the lowest national annual precipitation seen by the South African Weather Service since 1904 South Africa imports more than 40% of its wheat requirements. Wheat production in the farming year to end June 2021 is expected to reach a 19-year high following favourable weather conditions in. South Africa is caught up in the global hype of the fourth industrial revolution (4IR). This is distracting it from the unfinished business of redressing inequality and creating the preconditions. South Africa's consumer food price inflation was at 6.8% year on year in May 2021, from 6.7% year on year in April, according to data from Statistics South Africa. This is not an alarmist rate as.

Environmental impacts and constraints associated with the

  1. Zimbabwe is a landlocked country in the Southern Africa region, with an area of over 390 000 km 2. It is bordered by Zambia, Mozambique, South Africa and Botswana. It is situated between 15 and 22° south latitude and 26 and 34° east longitude. Climatic conditions are largely sub-tropical with one rainy season, between November and March
  2. South Africa's consumer food price inflation was at 6.8% year on year in May 2021, from 6.7% year on year in April, according to data from Statistics South Africa. This is not an alarmist rate.
  3. Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa) COVID-19 can affect the global economy in three main ways: by directly affecting production and demand, by creating.
  4. According to Science, a leading international research journal, by 2030 Southern Africa and South Asia will be the two regions in the world whose crop production is most affected by climate change
  5. Numerous biotic, abiotic and socio-economic factors affect maize production for resource poor farmers in the Eastern Cape (EC), which is one of the poorest Provinces in South Africa. Focus group discussions and semi-structured questionnaires were used to identify farmer characteristics, and specific production constraints influencing maize.

South Africa imports roughly 80% of its grain (including wheat and maize) from Ukraine, where conflict with Russia could affect the European country's ability to produce and export grain maize production in South Africa Tatenda Lysias Magodora September 2020 Abstract: The agricultural sector has remained under threat from climate change despite. Even veteran farmers would be wise to review the basic principles of maize production from time to time, as well as learn about the latest developments. Germination and emergence in maize, especially in areas of South Africa with milder climates, are affected by three interlinked factors and their characteristics The production of genetically modified white maize in South Africa increased dramatically from its introduction in the 2001/2002-production season. White maize, especially in the form of super- and special maize meal, is an extremely important staple food source for consumers of all age groups in South Africa Challenges to farmers, optimising crop production while limiting water and energy usage Applied to potato production in South Africa A.C. Franke 1, J.M. Steyn 2, A.J. Haverkort 3 1 University of the Free State 2 University of Pretoria 3 Wageningen University and Research Centre (NL For example, it predicts that by 2050, yields for maize in Zimbabwe and South Africa could decrease by more than 30%. image caption Cattle are already dying from the drought currently ravaging.

production are presented inTable 2. Maize contributed most to estimated potential dry fodder production globally followed by rice, wheat, sorghum, barley, millets and pulses. In Africa, estimated sorghum and maize dry fodder production are highest and almost equal while millets follow with half the contribution MSUYA, C. P. (2007). The Comparative role of intervening and independent variables in adoption behavior of maize growers in Njombe District, Tanzania. Thesis for Award of PhD Degree at University of Pretoria, South Africa, 199 pp OBINNE, C.P., 1991. Adoption of improved cassava production technologies by small-scale farmers in Bendel State

Crop Production Risk and Vulnerability Science Centr

  1. ate the agricultural, food and beverage environment) is beco
  2. Below are some of the key factors looking at the state of agriculture in South Africa's economy Agriculture performance Underpinned by the enormous contribution from field crops, horticultural products and animal products, 1st quarter GDP for agriculture forestry and fishing industry sector increased by 27.8% q/q with a 0.5 percentage point.
  3. While western Kenya is part of a high potential maize production belt, the most important factor contributing to better yields may be the adoption of PPT by households in the study region. The average maize yield on PPT plots was 1,507 kg per acre (3.72 MT/ha), compared with an average on non-PPT plots of 960 kg per acre (2.37 MT/ha)
  4. Impact of Air Pollution on Maize Production in the Sasolburg Area, South Africa Previous studies have shown that air pollution has an effect on maize production and can also influence yield. Since the pollution load at Sasolburg exceeds certain air quality standards, it is identified as a 'hot spot' and is therefore a perfect region to.
  5. The rainfed maize (Zea mays L.) production systems of South Africa require an integrated approach to use the limited soil available water more efficiently, and to increase system productivity and sustainability.The soils across the major maize production regions are highly susceptible to wind and water erosion. Rigorous soil tillage, maize monoculture, and fallow periods are common, which.
  6. use on maize farms in eastern Ethiopia found that age, farmer's perception of price change, and rainfall expectation are significant factors that affect fertilizer use among maize farmers. Olwande et al., (2009) in Kenya also confirm that age, education, credit, presence of a cash crop, distance to fertilizer market an
  7. tillage in CA systems (FAO, 2015). Adoption of CA in Africa is relatively low (Nyanga, 2012) despite more than 30 years of promoting CA in the continent. Any programs designed to upscale CA has to consider factors that affect behaviour change and enabling policies and institutional support to both producers and input supply chain servic

The disparate strength of influence between North Africa and Europe is likely related to the forms of abiotic stress imposed by the NAO in each region. and southeast South America (8% of production). Maize production would be stabilized during ENSO years if production in the United States decreased and production in southeast South America. PRODUCTION AND AGRONOMIC ASPECTS World annual sorghum production is over 60 million tonnes, of which Africa produces about 20 million tonnes3. This makes sorghum, quantitatively the second most important cereal grain in Africa after maize. Table I shows the major sorghum producing countries of Africa Keywords: climate variability, climate change, agricultural production, Limpopo, South Africa 1. Introduction Climate change directly affects agricultural production, as agriculture sector is inherently sensitive to climate conditions and is one of the most vulnerable sectors to the risks and impact of global climate change (Parry et al., 1999) Deriving optimum economic phosphorus guidelines for maize on the Eastern Highveld. Combined congress of the South African Crop Society and the Soil Science Society of South Africa. January, Transkei. BORNMAN, J J, 1991a. The use of agronomy research data for deriving optimum economic phosphorus recommendations for grain crops in South Africa

Factors affecting production of forage maiz

By Gerhard Uys. January 11, 2019. This story was originally posted in farmer's weekly. Many factors influence the current forecasts for the South Africa maize crop and maize prices, and the current drought conditions, in especially North West and some parts of the Free State, should not be compared to the conditions and prices experience economic indicator in South Africa because of its contribution and influence to the general Consumer Price Inflation (CPI) and its potential impact to food security, given the high levels of inequality and poverty in South Africa. South Africa uses inflation targeting, which aims to maintain CPI between 3 and 6 percent Unhealthy foods and tobacco remain the leading causes of non-communicable disease (NCDs). These are key agricultural commodities for many countries, and NCD prevention policy needs to consider how to influence production towards healthier options. There has been little scholarship to bridge the agriculture with the public health literature that seeks to address the supply of healthy commodities

Percentage of farmers growing different maize varieties inAbiodun ADEOLA | Lead Scientist | PhD Geoinformatics (UP

I. Summary and Conclusion

Wheat is often produced as a supplementary, dryland staple crop to maize in Southern Africa (south of the equator), and in South Africa specifically. Wheat production in South Africa could be. In maize production these include ultra-early maturing maize varieties like SC 301 (90-120 days to reach physiological maturity), drought tolerant maize varieties like the very early maturing SC. The purpose of the review is to assess the cultural practices and its influence on food waste in South Africa. Furthermore, it explores the reasons for food waste by looking at different cultural practice of various ethnic groups in South Africa. The growing concern of the challenges of waste on human health and the environment has pressured the world to come up with drastic measures on how to.

The how's and why's of yield estimatio

On the 7th October 2003 South Africa made the fortification, with vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, folic acid, iron and zinc) of certain types of maize meal (four of the now 18 different 2 maize products) and wheat flour (excluding 3 crushed wheat, pearled wheat, semolina, self-raising flour and flour with an ash content <0. South Africa has been growing first-generation commercial genetically modified (GM) maize since 1997. Despite a requirement for non-GM food, especially for export, there is no system for coexistence of GM and non-GM crop. Gene flow is a major contributor to commingling, and different distances of cross-pollination have been recorded for maize, using a variety of field-trial designs under. You will need to be able to discuss factors that affect the global distribution of agricultural systems. The reasons are outlined below:PhysicalClimateClimatic factors include...1. Temperature: Most plants cannot grow if the temperature falls below 6°C or the soil is frozen for five consecutive months. As a consequence many areas are unsuitable for crop cultivation.2 Selecting the appropriate channels to deliver farm products is not an easy task because there are various factors that affect producers to select such relevant channels. Hence, the study was aimed to investigate the factors that influence market channel choices among wheat producers in Northwestern Ethiopia. Using multistage sampling technique, 163 smallholder wheat producers were selected to.

Iii. Productio

Calcium ensures good plant strength, protecting root, leaf and stalk production. Boron is required for pollen tube growth and good grain set. Zinc is important for photosynthetic activity. Unavailability of any other micronutrient can also restrict growth processes and subsequent maize yield. Other crop management practices to increase maize yiel In this article, we demonstrated the dynamic impact of a bumper harvest and drought shocks on the maize market and on the trade regime in Ethiopia. Regional market integration of Ethiopia's white maize market with the South Sudan and Kenyan maize markets was also examined using cointegration analysis. Despite the renewed conflict in South Sudan, Addis Ababa maize market is cointegrated with. Various factors affect the growth of plants and water is amongst the most important, hence lack or excess may result in poor growth and subsequent yield loss. In South Africa, water is a scarce resource due to erratic rainfall as well as the competition for the resource between agriculture and other users Isolating the influence of climatic change from all the other trends is difficult, but one recent Stanford University study found that increases in global production of maize and wheat since 1980.

Factors that transformed maize productivity in Ethiopia

The Grassland Biome is the mainstay of dairy, beef and wool production in South Africa. Pastures may be augmented in wetter areas by the addition of legumes and sweet grasses. The Grassland Biome is the cornerstone of the maize crop, and many grassland types have been converted to this crop Numerous studies have assessed the impact of climate change on crop production in South Africa [17-22], their findings indicate a decrease in crop yield as a result of a changing climate. Mayowa [23] examined the impact of climate variability on maize yield in South Africa using satellite-derived data and a neutral framework. The result of th South Africa's consumer food price inflation was at 6.8% year on year in May 2021, from 6.7% year on year in April, according to data from Statistics South Africa. This is not an alarmist rate as we have seen double-digit inflation rates in years of drought such as 2016, where consumer food price inflation averaged 10.8% year on year South Africa (FAO 2010). As mentioned above, despite being a major maize producer, Mexico remains a net importer and the United States is the primary supplier of imported maize. Mexican maize production2 is generally classed into two sectors: rain-fed and irri-gated. Rain-fed production includes most small- (less than 5 hectares) and medium- (5 t

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